Since September 2008, Charles Carmalt has been serving as the City of Philadelphia’s first Pedestrian & Bicycle Coordinator, although it should be pointed out that Philadelphia has been a leader in the introduction of pedestrian enhancements since the 1740s, and it has been a leader in implementing bicycle improvements since the 1970s. In Philadelphia he led the process for establishing a pair of east-west bike lanes through Center City on Spruce and Pine Streets – accomplished by removing one of two travel lanes on each of these one-way streets, and is continuing the process of extending the City’s extensive bicycle network through Center City. Mr. Carmalt has over 35 years of experience as a transportation planner, with a practice focusing on the linkages between transportation systems and land use. For much of his career he was based in neighboring New Jersey where he worked as a transportation planning consultant, designing towns and cities so that they would be more walkable and bikable. (His clients included NJ TRANSIT, NJ Dept of Transportation, the Vermont Agency of Transportation, the Delaware Dept of Transportation, the Townships of Robbinsville and Lawrenceville and the City of Trenton.) He also was a planner for the NJ Department of Transportation, where he developed innovative methods to improve that agency’s ability to work with local governments to improve the relationship between transportation systems and the land uses that transportation systems are supposed to serve. His career began as the first greenway planner for the city of Raleigh, NC.