Public Transportation Facilites
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROJECTS
The Transit Friendly Communities for New Jersey program is a unique partnership between NJ Transit, the New Jersey Department of Community Affairs, the Office of State Planning, and non-profit groups (Project for Public Spaces, Regional Plan Association, Downtown New Jersey, Rutgers Transportation Policy Institute and New Jersey Future). The program was developed to demonstrate to New Jersey communities that over $7.5 billion in transit investments for repairing and connecting all of the State’s passenger train lines can be leveraged to revitalize downtowns, encourage business and local economic development, and reduce reliance on the private car. Following two workshops, eleven stations were selected for the program to represent diversity including those in developed downtowns (Rutherford, Red Bank), new light rail stations (Bayonne, Riverton, Palmyra), and stations where there is considerable development opportunity (Hackensack, Matawan/Aberdeen). Tailored to the needs of each community, technical assistance involved a full range of issues: walkability and bikeability analysis to all stations; traffic calming; community visioning; new development and zoning strategies to support higher density uses that support transit; revitalization of adjacent retail or downtown districts; and making the train station an important community place. The goal is to achieve immediate, visible results in the selected demonstration communities, while greatly increasing public interest and awareness across the State of the opportunity for transportation to leverage community enhancements and support land use development practices that are transit friendly.
Since 1896, the NJ Transit Rutherford Train Station on Station Square has played a pivotal role in the development of Rutherford, and has been an anchor for the town’s main street. While important to the community, the train station was also disconnected, with a wide, poorly functioning traffic circle in Station Square. PPS recommended reconnecting the main street with the station, improving bicycle access and making the station a focal point for new infill development. The focal point of the project is a new modern roundabout at the station along with pedestrian improvements on all streets that lead like a spoke from the station. Funding: New Jersey Transit under a grant from the Federal Highway Administration TCSP program.
Project for Public Spaces worked under contract to the Washington (DC) Metropolitan Area Transit Authority to develop a system of metro station signage enhancements to enhance the customer experience at Metrorail Stations through a comprehensive evaluation of the communication systems used for customers in and around the stations, and by making recommendations for improving and enhancing the existing communication systems with actual design examples. The goal was to craft design solutions that would result in more user-friendly station environments and, by looking holistically at stations and station surroundings and how all elements work together, to create dynamic, well-functioning community places around WMATA metro stations throughout the system. Funding: Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority.
The Cleveland EcoVillage is a national demonstration project with the goal of developing a model urban village that will realize the potential of urban life in the most ecological way possible. The project is intended to unite the latest Green Building ideas with the goal of reducing pressures for wasteful urban sprawl. The renovation of the station has become the central focal point for the EcoVillage. In May of 1999, Project for Public Spaces conducted a community workshop to get people’s ideas about potential uses for the area around the station (in new buildings as well as a proposed new station plaza) and to discuss the best ways to access the station. Recommendations were developed for the programming and design of the station and surrounding development. Funding: Regional Transit Authority.
LOS ANGELES NEIGHBORHOOD INITIATIVE
While New Jersey Transit was in the process of building a handsome new train station building in Rahway, Downtown Rahway Partnership, the downtown’s special improvement district, hired PPS to look at the possibility of removing adjacent retail buildings in order to build a new station square. In addition, PPS investigated pedestrian, circulation and streetscape improvements that could be made in the surrounding neighborhood to better integrate the station and its proposed plaza into the community. Client: Downtown Rahway Partnership; Proposed Implementation Funding: ISTEA.
The Irvington Bus Terminal is a bus transfer center that handles about 7,500 riders per day. Located at the entrance to town along Irvington’s main street, Springfield Avenue, the Terminal facility was too small to serve its growing ridership, provided few passenger amenities, constricted bus turning and bus layover, and had dangerous pedestrian crossing conditions. In collaboration with the Township and NJ Transit, PPS developed a plan that includes reconfiguring the adjacent parking lot to serve as a central square, expanding the size of the terminal building to accommodate additional retail and to provide more passenger waiting area, increasing the number of bus lanes, and adding crosswalks and sidewalk extensions to reduce conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles. Client: Township of Irvington and New Jersey Transit. Funding: New Jersey Transit.
Working with a local team of architects, planners, and real estate specialists, PPS studied the current usage and potential of Delmar Station, which opened in 1993 as part of a new light rail system. The district around the station, once a transitional area of industrial and commercial uses and auto-oriented services, is now emerging as a hub of activity which can help revitalize the surrounding neighborhoods. PPS surveyed riders and analyzed the many pedestrian conflicts around Delmar Station, which is also a major bus transfer center. Recommendations were made for creating a transit plaza with a small retail kiosk, improving pedestrian crossing, and reducing vehicle impacts in the area. Working with the Washington University Urban Research and Design Center, PPS also prepared a bicycle access plan for the station. Client: Bi-State Development Agency.
PPS, along with Abeles Phillips Preiss and Shapiro, undertook an economic study and physical analysis of downtown Summit for the special improvement district, Summit Downtown, Inc. The well-used New Jersey Transit station became a target for improvements because of its location in the heart of Summit and its potential for becoming an important public gathering place. Traffic and pedestrian issues were addressed at the station, as well as recommendations for increased retail activity both inside and outside the station. Client: Summit Downtown, Inc.
With the opening of the Morris and Essex line, and the new New Jersey Performing Arts Center (NJPAC), NJ Transit’s Broad Street Station was in a position to function as a gateway to Newark, for commuters and theatergoers. The new Newark-Elizabeth light rail line, scheduled to open in 2002, terminates at Broad Street. While the historic station building was carefully renovated and is well-maintained, the plaza in front of the station consists of a broad expanse of concrete with few trees or benches, and is used primarily by passengers passing through on their way to transfer between the train and buses that stop at the eastern edge of the plaza. The plaza is bounded by six lanes of fast moving traffic on Broad Street, cutting it off from the rest of downtown and the NJPAC. PPS’s plan called for additional landscaping, lighting, seating, and vending, with new pathways that follow the desire lines of transferring passengers. Client: NJ Transit.
As part of a team looking at the potential of the Amtrak Station in Wilmington, Delaware, PPS developed a program of uses and design concept for the revitalization of the square in front of the station. Currently, the square is bisected by a major roadway and is little used. The proposed redesign would relocated the bisecting street, make the square more pedestrian accessible and create a multi-use urban garden with horticultural displays, a café, and other amenities. Recommendations for additional retail in surrounding buildings, including the station itself, were also developed. Client: Wilmington Metropolitan Planning Council.
New Jersey Transit and the Borough of Red Bank jointly hired PPS to develop a plan for the area around the historic train station that would include a bus transfer facility. PPS proposed creating a small park in front of the station to serve as the center of a revitalized retail neighborhood as well as a waiting area for bus patrons. The plan included introducing angled parking in front of existing shops, commuter parking strategies, pedestrian improvements to encourage more commuters to walk to the station and a plaza for a public market next to the station. Client: New Jersey Transit and the Borough of Red Bank.
Orenco Station is a new 500-acre development adjacent to a new Westside MAX light rail project in Hillsboro, Oregon. After an extensive community process and establishing a partnership with a major land owner, Orenco is now being completed and will include 80,000 square feet of retail, with residential and live-work units on a pedestrian-friendly, tree-lined street, 400 single-family townhomes and cottages, 1400 apartments, two public parks and public artworks. PPS facilitated three workshops to establish key design concepts and transportation strategies for development north of the new community station. The Orenco Station transit-oriented development received numerous local and national awards. Funding: City of Hillsboro.
The Central Park Conservancy asked PPS to study traffic, pedestrian and transportation issues at Frederick Douglass Circle, an important intersection at the northwest corner of Central Park. This included examining how to create a stronger link between the Park and the existing subway station beneath the Circle. PPS proposals included reducing the size of the intersection to allow for easier pedestrian crossings and more opportunities for place?making, more attractive and visible entrances to the subway station and enhancing and enlarging the entrance to Central Park. Client: Central Park Conservancy; Funding: The Federal Transit Administration’s Livable Community Initiative.
PPS assisted in developing concepts for the Portland, Oregon area Ped to Max Program, which is intended to improve the connection between existing TRI-MET light rail stations and adjacent communities. Improvements included creating a better pedestrian environment by introducing changes such as crosswalks and slowing down traffic on streets surrounding the stations, developing concepts for the use of adjacent public space, as well as recommending management strategies for addressing issues related to an enhanced image and identity for the areas. Client: David Evans & Associates/TRI-MET.
PPS worked with the Corpus Christi Regional Transportation Authority on a series of projects to develop ways for transportation facilities to act as catalysts for redeveloping neighborhoods. Community workshops were held in a variety of neighborhoods to develop innovative ways to enhance trolley and bus stops, the City Hall bus transfer center, and to introduce streetscape improvements. In the first phase, plans that were developed and implemented included newsstands and plant vending facilities to activate a plaza, vending carts and the creation of an arcade facade on one block of a retail area. Other improvements instituted included an extension of a restaurant building, reinstatement of angled parking in suitable areas of the downtown, and a work of public sculpture for an area adjacent to a trolley stop. In the next phase, PPS worked on the new Staples Street City Hall bus transfer center. Uniting seven routes, the center opened in February 1994 with new landscaping and amenities, including handmade ceramic tiles gracing the facility’s benches, light poles, columns and central archway, created by 1500 children and adult members of the community. PPS received a Federal Design Achievement Award for work at this station, as part of the National Endowment for the Arts Presidential Design Awards Program. In a follow-up assignment, PPS developed a plan to improve the pedestrian environment around the station and to link it to a nearby low income neighborhood, largely transit dependent, located on the other side of a major interstate highway. Recommendations included adding crosswalks, introducing traffic calming measures and enhancing landscaping and lighting in order to improve pedestrian access to the station, encourage more pedestrian use and help revitalize local businesses. Client: Regional Transportation Authority.
PPS, working with Urban Associates Architects, developed a plan for renovating the Hempstead, Long Island Train Station, one of the busiest intermodal hub facilities in New York State. The area around the Station, comprised mainly of surface parking lots that separate it from adjacent retail centers and residential neighborhoods, was not perceived as having a sense of place or as being safe. PPS recommendations included design changes and streetscape enhancements to West Columbia Street facing the station to make it safer for passengers to cross between the train and Long Island Bus stations; developing a distinctive architectural style and upgraded amenities for the Station building that would be both welcoming and comfortable for passenger use; designs to create clear visibility for Station security, ticket agents and passengers; provision of a strong management and security presence at the Station; and the inclusion of local stakeholders in both the planning and management of the Station. Client: Long Island Railroad.
As with most major cities, downtown Boston is faced with significant transportation problems. While the city has one of the highest transit use rates in the country, downtown is still overly dominated by the private car — leaving pedestrians to fend for themselves against the notorious Boston drivers. The Boston Transportation Plan is a comprehensive analysis of transportation problems and needs for the downtown, looking broadly at transit, auto circulation, bicycling, and pedestrians. Under a team led by Cambridge Systematics, PPS addressed how to make downtown more pedestrian-oriented through improvements to reduce traffic speed and better balance pedestrian and vehicular needs. Case studies of intensively used pedestrian areas in downtown were conducted, and pilot projects to test the impact of changes on the use of street space are being initiated. Funding: Boston Transportation Department.
PPS developed a plan to revitalize a long-neglected shopping street opposite the Netherwood commuter rail station in downtown Plainfield, New Jersey, with new pedestrian-friendly improvements, including crosswalks, landscaped medians, lighting and widened sidewalks, as well as a plan to work with neighboring retailers to add awnings, improved signage, outdoor cafes and displays, all in order to create a lively town center and integrate the station into the adjacent street and surrounding area. Because of the station enhancements developed by PPS and implemented by New Jersey Transit, the City of Plainfield was able to transfer $450,000 in State roadway repaving moneys to fund streetscape and place-making improvements to the areas in front of the train station along South Avenue. These funds were then matched by a $500,000 ISTEA grant, providing nearly $1 million in leveraged funds to extend the station enhancement efforts further into the surrounding commercial and residential districts. Currently the project is being implemented, and PPS has been asked to continue to be involved. Client: City of Plainfield Office of Planning.
The Santa Fe Railroad Station adjacent to downtown San Bernardino, which is still in use by Amtrak, has recently been expanded to include a commuter rail station operated
Project for Public Spaces, in conjunction with the Urban Mobility Corporation and the National Association of Neighborhoods, was asked by the Federal Transit Administration to provide technical assistance to communities applying for designation as Enterprise Zones and Empowerment Communities. As part of this effort, the team guided over 100 cities and towns in developing community-based transportation elements as part of their strategic plans to meet economic development and other community needs. The team prepared written information, made site visits to hold workshops and meet with groups in 15 cities of various sizes, and consulted with people in additional communities by telephone. Client: Federal Transit Administration.
PPS assisted the City of Seattle in developing a plan for retrofitting an existing rail station into a more heavily used intermodal facility incorporating commuter rail, bus, and taxi, in addition to the existing transit uses of the site. PPS’s specific role was to outline ways of ensuring that the facility would be safe and secure and contribute to the liveability and quality of life of the community around it, of which there is some concern. Client: City of Seattle.
Project for Public Spaces developed a plan for retrofitting the pedestrian mall in Riverside, California to accommodate a trolley, to improve visibility and access to businesses, and to create nodes of social activity along the mall. The plan was developed using a community-based planning process in which members of the Riverside community participated in developing the recommended solutions. Client: Riverside Redevelopment Authority.
Much of the public perception that Riverside, California is unsafe is related to a very small area in the downtown which includes the Greyhound Bus Station and the area surrounding it. Although the Regional Transit Authority serves over 5000 people each day, because of the negative image caused by people hanging out at the bus station, consideration has been given to moving it away from the downtown altogether. Project for Public Spaces did an evaluation of the use of the Station at different times of day, week and evening, interviewed bus passengers and adjacent retailers and developed a plan with the City and community for making improvements to the design, use and management of the Station. One of the first changes was the organization of a Wednesday Market and the addition of a snack and beverage vendor – both of which have a significant positive effect on the security of the area. Funding: Riverside Redevelopment Authority.
In anticipation of the construction of the Red Line through Hollywood, PPS undertook a number of efforts for the Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Agency. Working with the Joint Development program, PPS conducted a community workshop and worked with design teams selected to develop the strategic urban design plans for the stations at Hollywood and Vine, Hollywood and Highland, and Hollywood and Western. PPS also worked with MTA staff to prepare a construction mitigation plan for these sites, with a focus of special events and activities to draw people to the Boulevard during construction. This project, Live on Hollywood was partially funded by the MTA during 1993-1994. Funding: Metropolitan Transportation Authority.
Under the sponsorship of the International Downtown Association, PPS helped to facilitate a workshop with the Jamaica, Queens business community. The primary issue was to develop, with members of the community, a series of small, short term improvements that could be made to the street and adjacent multimodal transportation center. In addition to transportation services such as the Long Island Railroad, New York City subway and busses, numerous private van and car services as well as taxi and a planned monorail connection to LaGuardia and Kennedy Airports are an integral part of this community. However, the riders have little interaction or impact on the economic and social vitality of the community. This center is and will continue to be one of the most heavily used and complicated transportation centers in the United States. Funding: International Downtown Association.
PPS developed recommendations, renderings and site plans to enhance the downtown Woodbridge commuter rail station and the area around it. These improvements included adding historic-style amenities to the station platform and waiting areas, expanding both station entrances, with additional signage, retail activity and plaza areas for kiss ‘n ride. To improve access to and from the station, PPS recommended paving the front entrance to the station, installing better signage and lighting along the paths to the parking lots in back, and a pedestrian-activated crossing light under the railroad trestle so pedestrians could safely cross Main Street near the station. PPS also worked with local retailers interested in satellite retail operations to serve station users and in improving their entrances facing the station. As a result of the PPS concept plan, New Jersey Transit applied for and received over $460,000 in federal discretionary funds to implement the recommended improvements. The improvements have been implemented, including new lighting and pavers that provide a clearer connection and relationship to downtown Woodbridge and the new City Hall. Two local retailers are moving into the two kiosk spaces built under the Station entrance canopies, and a regional micro-brewery and restaurant now occupies a vacant building at the corner of Main Street behind the trestle. The owner and New Jersey Transit have arranged for transit passenger use of the brewery parking lot, and the brewery owner will landscape the areas adjacent to his building. Client: New Jersey Transit.
PPS worked with New Jersey Transit to develop a cooperative program to improve six New Jersey commuter rail stations, so that they would have a stronger impact on the communities in which they were located. PPS developed a strategy to enhance the connections between stations and neighboring communities by generating broad-based community input and involvement regarding station management, retail activities, events programming, passenger amenities and station beautification. Issues addressed included station identification, integration of stations with adjacent land uses, passenger use and comfort, parking fee structures, and appropriate adaptive reuse of historic station buildings. PPS is assisting in implementing design, management and operational changes in transit facilities in Maplewood, Woodbridge, Bradley Beach, Plainfield/Netherwood, East Orange and Rahway, New Jersey. Client: New Jersey Transit; Funding: The Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation.
The East Orange City Hall, NJ Transit Train Station, and Post Office — constructed in the early part of this century — create a unique focal point to the city. PPS prepared a master plan for this area to make it a center of community life and activity. During the summer of 1992, the East Orange Community Market was established on an experimental basis in conjunction with a summer-long mid-week Jazz Concert series. The experience of this program is guiding a long-term physical improvement plan for the site which includes the creation of an intermodal transit center at the station, improved pedestrian access from the train station to other parts of the downtown, and improvements to the storefronts and retail facades of businesses in the adjacent retail corridor. Client: City of East Orange; Implementation Funding: ISTEA.
PPS served as a member of a design review committee to evaluate proposal for a new trolley circulator system in downtown Orlando. PPS also prepared guidelines for the design of trolley stops and reviewed streetscape plans. Client: City of Orlando.
PPS developed a concept for expanding the Long Island Railroad terminal in Pennsylvania Station in New York City. In addition to the LIRR expansion, the proposed project includes a new entrance for the LIRR and a $100 million privately developed retail center located adjacent to the station on property that is privately owned by Helmsley-Spear, Inc. Client: Helmsley-Spear, Inc.
The Peter Pan Bus Company, located in downtown Springfield, retained PPS to help evaluate the future potential of its property, including the possibility of developing a major office tower and relocating its bus terminal. Long-range conceptual plans were developed for the Peter Pan site as well as surrounding blocks, which include a historic train station. These plans are being used to stimulate interest in coordinated revitalization of the area and the conversion of the train station into a community facility. Client: Peter Pan Bus Company.
PPS, along with the management consulting firm of Rubloff Corporate Services, a private developer, and the City’s Department of Transportation, developed several alternatives for the design of a proposed retail-transit center in the Howard Paulina neighborhood of Chicago. The project was initiated by the Howard Paulina Development Corporation, a local community organization. The concept for the development included a transit hub for commuter trains and buses, and a retail center that would include shopping and entertainment opportunities for both commuters and local residents. A public market was proposed as part of the retail component. Client: Howard Paulina Development Corporation.
PPS prepared the pedestrian design and planning elements of a transportation plan for
As part of an update of Redmond’s transportation plan, PPS prepared the pedestrian and bicycle elements. The plan included a description of existing conditions, needs analysis for projected activities, comparative improvement analysis as well as recommended improvements and amendments to the Development Guide. Funding: City of Redmond.
As urban design consultants for the development of the Union Station site, PPS was responsible for the planning of public spaces as well as the urban design, urban climate, historic preservation and pedestrian and bicycle elements of the environmental impact statement. In addition, PPS conducted research to determine the historic significance of Union Station and described regulations and incentives for historic preservation of the building. PPS received a 1985 Progressive Architecture award in urban design and planning for this project. Funding: Upland Industries Corporation.
The University District is one of Seattle’s busiest and most congested neighborhoods. An important goal for the City is the encouragement of alternative transportation modes. PPS was retained to evaluate pedestrian and bicycle elements for existing and future conditions and to make design recommendations. Funding: City of Seattle; Metro.
This study was aimed at improving the connection between the waterfront and the adjacent historic district of Old San Juan in order to provide tourists on cruise ships with a more direct access to the district. Conflicts between pedestrians and all modes of vehicles (buses, tourist vans, taxis) were studied at the two major cruise ship terminals where 500,000 tourists arrive each year. Funding: Municipality of San Juan.
PPS studied and made recommendations for improvements to five New York City subway stations (Grand Central Station, Flushing Line Platform; Times Square; 59th Street; Lexington Avenue; and Woodhaven). Specific issues related to circulation, access, and pedestrian conflict (congested stairs and corridors) were analyzed in each station. PPS also looked at the need for station amenities, the relationship of concessions to the use and safety of the station, the impact of adjacent land uses and problems orienting people within the station and outside the station on the street. Funding: New York City Transit Authority.
PPS worked on the redesign of the Times Square subway station as part of the 42nd Street Redevelopment Project. PPS studied issues related to pedestrian use, safety and security, circulation and access to and from the station. Management recommendations for station layout, access and security have been incorporated into the forthcoming plan. Funding: Public Development Corporation.
PPS established design and site selection criteria for a transit center to be part of the proposed Bellevue Pedestrian Corridor. Pedestrian and urban design criteria were prepared as well as projections of new development and pedestrian trip patterns. Funding: Metro.
PPS was a member of an award-winning team of architects, planners and designers that planned, designed and constructed a 15-mile segment of a projected regional light rail transit system. PPS’s project role involved the creation of design criteria related to the needs of pedestrians and transit riders on Portland light rail streets. PPS also prepared a draft management and maintenance plan The team won an urban design and planning award from Progressive Architecture. Funding: Tri-Met; City of Portland.
Located on a heavily used shopping street, between Sear’s and a major office and retail development, this bus terminal was the unplanned chaotic stop for six bus lines. PPS’s recommendations were aimed at making the terminal more comfortable for people to use as well as more convenient for buses. Funding: Tri-State Regional Planning Commission.
This subway station, located in the heart of the heavily used Fordham Road shopping area, has the highest crime rate of any station in the Bronx. PPS determined that the vast mezzanine level, long corridors, and many stairways exceeded passenger’s need for them, and that these spaces made the station less manageable. Recommendations to reduce the size of the mezzanine level and to improve sight lines throughout the station were made as part of a total station renovation program. Funding: Tri?State Regional Planning Commission.
As consultants to Gruzen & Partners, architects, PPS analyzed pedestrian flow patterns and identified problem areas at this major subway station in the Bronx. PPS also assisted in developing the design changes to the station, including enlarged entrance areas and a new transfer operation between buses and the subway. Funding: Tri-State Regional Planning Commission.
As lead consultant to the New York City Department of City Planning for its South Bronx Transportation Planning Project, PPS analyzed aspects of pedestrian and vehicular circulation needs in this major intersection in the South Bronx. Recommendations for a new entrance and other subway station improvements were also developed. The centerpiece of the plan is a new marketplace and gathering space on the square. Funding: Tri-State Regional Planning Commission.
BUS SHELTER EVALUATION STUDY (1980-81)
Grand Central Subway Station is being renovated at a cost of $10 million in order to improve the station’s pedestrian circulation and overall environment. PPS worked with Steelye Stevenson Value & Knecht, engineers, and Gruzen and Partners, architects, to analyze pedestrian flow patterns and to identify points of congestion, confusion, and conflict. Based on this analysis, PPS assisted in developing design changes to the station. Construction was completed in 1990. Funding: New York Metropolitan Transit Authority.
RESEARCH, EDUCATION AND ADVOCACY
As the result of discussions between PPS, the federal government and several other non-profit organizations, a new public/private initiative is being set up to improve the capacity of transportation planning, decision making and investments to enhance the social, economic and physical well being of all communities — building on existing efforts of the Department of Transportation to advance the role of transportation in creating liveable communities. Discussions are focussing on ways transportation can: (1) foster community based planning and people-oriented design improvements, increasing personal mobility, system access and capacity and enhancing a sense of place ; (2) improve economic opportunities and provide for more equitable access to these opportunities; and (3) enhance quality of life, safety, security and business vitality. While the overall Partnership is still in formation, PPS and three other non-profit partners have joined together with USDOT to initiate a series of pilot educational and demonstration activities to be undertaken in 1996-1997. The first of these will be a series of one-day regional workshops to highlight model, community-based transportation programs from around the country. Other activities will include demonstration projects in selected cities and publication of the results of the demonstrations. An organizational plan for the National Partnership is expected to be completed by the end of 1996 that will define future directions. Funding: Federal Highway Administration, Federal Transit Administration, Surdna Foundation.
The objective of this 18 month national study that PPS conducted was to develop tangible, practical and affordable ideas that can be used to both build new public transit facilities and modify existing ones so that they contribute in a positive way to the livability of the communities in which they are located. PPS did research to define the key elements of livability and identify transit-related actions that positively influence these elements as well as complementary actions (e.g., public investment policies, schools, housing, safety programs) that can be used in concert with transit to determine how they best can enhance community livability. This research has been framed to inform a national agenda to develop meaningful roles for transit in creating livable communities. On a local level, PPS defined a new process for conducting transit planning so that it better meets community needs. Funding: Transit Cooperative Research Program (Transportation Research Board).
PPS conducted a study of two major commercial streets in Midtown Manhattan (34th Street and Lexington Avenue). The study focused on the interrelationship between various modes of transportation and the appropriate distribution of space to different uses. It included an analysis of the causes of congestion, points of conflict and the effectiveness of informational signage. The objectives were to 1) develop implementable recommendations that will improve the overall design and management of the streets and 2) document a methodology for systematically examining circulation and activity patterns on major corridors in midtown. The results of the study have been published by the New York City Department of City Planning. Funding: New York City Department of City Planning.