Abu Dhabi plans for a green future less based on cars
By Gary Toth
Senior Director, Transportation Initiatives
If you design your city around cars, you get more cars. If you design your city around people, you get more people.-PPS
Abu Dhabi is a city of almost 900,000 people. It has grown remarkably since 1960, when it was a dusty village of 25,000 whose economy was based on camel herding, pearl diving, fishing and date farming. That was about the time it was discovered that Abu Dhabi –now one of the seven emirates comprising the nation of the United Arab Emirates – was sitting on one-tenth of the world’s oil reserves.
With most of its growth occurring after 1975, Abu Dhabi grew during the height of the automobile era. With endless supplies of cheap oil, it was logical that planners built a city based almost solely upon car travel, just as the U.S. did in the 1950s and 1960s when it was the world’s leading oil producer. Transit was deemed irrelevant, and the city grew around a backbone of wide boulevards laid out in a grid of super blocks. The downtown is dominated by 20 or more-story buildings fronting these congested boulevards.
Most of the streets are clogged by illegal parking that is tolerated by municipal authorities. The net result is the same as it has been for every other automobile-oriented city in the world: cars and more cars, backed up 18 hours a day.
With the downtown core developed to capacity, smaller satellite business districts developed wherever there was space.
A few years ago, Abu Dhabi wisely recognized it would be a mistake to continue basing its growth on the automobile and cheap energy. The problems of traffic congestion, resource consumption and environmental sustainability needed to be addressed. In September 2007, the government released Plan Abu Dhabi 2030, which calls for new national performance measures that respect natural resources, the fragile environment, air quality and livability. A nation that has enough oil to last a lifetime has decided to “…cautiously use existing wealth, to actively explore renewable energy production, to reduce the consumption of non renewable resources.”
The release of this green plan was logically followed by a new set of guidelines on street design, the Urban Street Design Manual (SDM). I played a part in helping Abu Dhabi’s Department of Transport, Urban Planning Council, and a consultant team led by Otak International and Nelson Nygaard in shaping the new streets plan.
Abu Dhabi’s SDM pays homage to A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets by the American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (the AASHTO “Green Book”) – America’s nearly universally accepted highway design guidebook. While thanking AASHTO for serving as the foundation for the design of the current transportation network in Abu Dhabi, the SDM team concluded that the Green Book does not adequately serve as a guide for “…urban streets where modes of transportation other than the automobile are present.”
Abu Dhabi’s new plan for street design is based upon the following community-based principles:
- Good street design starts with pedestrians. The world’s great cities are delightful and safe for walking, resulting not only in lower rates of driving but also improved public health.
- Good street design supports Abu Dhabi’s environmental goals: reducing CO2 emissions, minimizing the urban heat island effect and reducinig water consumption.
- Street connectivity enhances road capacity and allows smooth traffic flow. Congestion worsens when most vehicle traffic is funneled onto arterial streets.
- Street design follows from a sense of place. Streets are not just for movement of vehicles, but for enhancing the communities they pass through. This means paying attention to the enjoyment of residents and the success of businesses.
Abu Dhabi’s Street Design Manual also established policies on several innovative concepts that transportation advocates have long pushed for in the U.S, such as performance measures for pedestrians, transit and bicyclists, not just cars. It recognizes the value of “Streets as Places” and adapts the PPS Street Audit, a survey which transportation stakeholders can use to evaluate their streets, as well as introducing a toolbox of initiatives to promote street connectivity.
A city with enough oil wealth to accomplish whatever it pleases has decided to ease back on auto-dominated development and create a sustainable transportation system for the 21st Century. A city that continues to grow by leaps and bounds has decided to reinvent itself based on placemaking. Why can’t we do the same in the U.S.?
Of course, there are some unique circumstances in Abu Dhabi that do not apply in the United States:
- Abu Dhabi has a different political structure and does not face much public resistance to get things done. I found that the Abu Dhabi government is open to ideas and input from outside, but it is true that he level of democratic involvement in decision making is much lower than in Western nations.
- Abu Dhabi is in a much sounder financial position based on the nationalization of their oil reserves. This wealth will certainly make a difference when it comes to rightsizing and adding traffic calming to existing roads, as well as creating the new transit system that is to become the backbone of Abu Dhabi.
- Abu Dhabi has only recently become a major city so its bureaucracies have not had the time to develop an entrenched culture.
While the U.S. clearly faces obstacles not found in Abu Dhabi, there is no doubt in my mind that we can turn the corner toward sustainable and sensible transportation here. Over the past few years, a number of cities and regions (see sidebar) have developed progressive design guidelines that link street features and dimensions to the context of local communities. These documents move us toward street designs that encourage appropriate traffic speeds and safe travel for a variety of transportation modes.
Gary Toth has been one of the national leaders in the movement to integrate transportation and land use. He worked for the New Jersey Department of Transportation for more than 30 years, and now is PPS’s Senior Director for Transportation Initiatives.
Other Notable Street Design Manuals
An overview of innovative street design manuals being developed and/or implemented across the country:
New York City
New York City recently released its Street Design Manual, which seeks to provide a more equitable balance between motor vehicles, bikes and people and provide amenities and design features that support the role of streets as public gathering spaces. PPS was honored to be among the groups providing input into this document, which recommends that streets should be designed to be the minimum width that safely accommodates different modes and that narrowing sidewalks and widening roadways should be avoided. This document also includes provisions for the New York City Plaza Program, which has already created well-used public plazas throughout the boroughs of the city.
The Context Sensitive Design Manual for the Chatham County-Savannah Metropolitan Region describes the relationship between transportation and land use and offers guidance on street design elements, based on an area’s existing context and the functional classification of the street.
The Multi-Modal Corridor Typologies and Guidelines for Indianapolis identify 11 different corridor types and offers recommendations for each, including dominant land use, streetscape elements and modes accommodated and discouraged. San Francisco: The draft Better Streets Plan focuses on how street design can encourage social interaction, recreation and ecological health. Charlotte: The draft Urban Street Design Guidelines for Charlotte (NC) address sustainable development and ways to create great streets that accommodate pedestrians, motorists, bicycles and transit riders.
Most recently, the City of Los Angeles has created a Downtown Design Guide and Downtown Street Standards intended to foster a comfortable and engaging pedestrian environment in its urban core. Pennsylvania & New Jersey: New Jersey and Pennsylvania DOTs jointly published the Smart Transportation Guidebook earlier this year which connects street design guidelines to roadway function and surrounding land uses; this document also addresses the planning process and the role of local communities in creating context-sensitive streets.
The Institute of Transportation Engineers also produced draft guidance on this topic in its publication Context Sensitive Solutions in Designing Major Urban Thoroughfares for Walkable Communities.